Sam Trenholme's webpage

Logical Fallacies

Just the list without descriptions (for test review)

Fallacies of relevance

  • Ad Hominem

    Attacking the speaker instead of the argument.

  • Ad Hominem Circumstantial

    Attacking the speaker's affiliation instead of the argument

  • Tu Quo / You're another one

    Accusing speaker of "pot calling kettle black"

  • Ad Populum / Appeal to the Masses

    Saying "everyone does it" or "many do it"

  • Ad Vericundiam / Appeal to Authority / Pleading to Authoirty

    Quoting the opinion of someone not qualfied to have an opinion in the matter under debate.

  • Argumentum Ad Baculum / Appeal to Force / Appeal to Coercion

    Using threats (implied or direct) to support a given point of view.

  • Argumentum Ad Misericordiam / Appeal to Pity

    Using someone's unfortunate circumstances to support an unrelated issue.

  • Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam / Appeal to Ignorance

    "If you can't prove me wrong, I must be right!"

Fallacies of presumption

  • Accident

    General rule incorrectly applied to special case

  • Hasty Generalization

    Special case incorrectly adopted as general rule

  • Biases statistics

    Statistics for a sub-population applied to the entire population

  • Bifurcation (Also "False Dichotomy" or "Excluded Middle")

    An either/or where other options are available

  • Complex question

    A question that assumes something that is not true.

  • Red Herring

    Trying to change the subject

  • Slippery Slope

    If we let X happen, it will just get more and more extreme.

  • Straw Man

    Putting words in our opponent's mouth.

  • Begging the Question (for the purposes of this test; common English usage is different)

    Circular reasoning If A then B, if B then A, hence A (or B or both).